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System Configuration Disks in Software Generator UPC-A in Software System Configuration Disks

System Configuration Disks generate, create none none in none projects Web app When using none none quotas, always remember the following important notes: Setting a quota to zero means no quota limit to be enforced; this is the default setting for all users. Setting hard limit to one indicates that no more allocations should be allowed to be made. Setting hard limit to zero and soft limit to one indicates that all allocations should be permitted only for a limited time (grace period).

Setting grace period to zero indicates that the default grace period (one week) should be used. Setting grace period to one second means that no grace period should be allowed. In order to use the edquota(8) utility to edit group quota setting, -g flag is specified.

. File System Backup There are d none for none ifferent utilities in the FreeBSD base system to help system"s administrators to take backups from their systems. But before starting to take backups, you should define your backup strategy. Backups can be taken at the file-system-level, from the whole partition or physical disk, or on a higher-level.

This enables you to select relevant files and directories t o be archived and moved to a tape device or a remote server. In this chapter, we will discuss different utilities and how to use them to create usable backups for your needs..

Dump and Restore The dump(8) none none utility is the most reliable and portable backup solution to take backups on UNIX systems. The dump utility, in conjunction with restore(8), creates your basic backup toolbox in FreeBSD. The dump command is able to create full and incremental backups from the whole disk or any partition of your choice.

Even if your file system that you want to take backups from, is live (which in most cases is), the dump utility creates a snapshot of your file system before the back up, to ensure that your file system does not change during the process. By default, dump creates backups on a tape drive unless you specify another file or a special device..

[ 18 ]. 1 . A typical f ull backup using dump may look like the following example:. # dump -0au none none L -f /usr/dump1 /dev/ad0s1a DUMP: DUMP: DUMP: DUMP: DUMP: DUMP: DUMP: DUMP: DUMP: DUMP: DUMP: DUMP: DUMP: Date of this level 0 dump: Sat Apr 14 16:40:03 2007 Date of last level 0 dump: the epoch Dumping snapshot of /dev/ad0s1a (/) to /usr/dump1 mapping (Pass I) [regular files] mapping (Pass II) [directories] estimated 66071 tape blocks. dumping (Pass III) [directories] dumping (Pass IV) [regular files] DUMP: 66931 tape blocks on 1 volume finished in 15 seconds, throughput 4462 KBytes/sec level 0 dump on Sat Apr 14 16:40:03 2007 Closing /usr/dump1 DUMP IS DONE. In the abov e example, dump is used to take a full backup (note the -0 flag) of the /dev/ad0s1a file, which is mounted onto the / mount point to a regular /usr/dump1 file. The -L flag indicates that the partition is a live file system; so dump will create a consistent snapshot from the partition, before performing the backup operation..

In case -L none for none flag is specified, dump creates a snapshot in .snap directory in the root partition of the file system. The snapshot will be removed as soon as the dump process is complete.

Always remember to use -L on your live file systems. This flag will be ignored in read-only and unmounted partitions..

And finally -u flag tells dump to record dump information in the /etc/dumpdates file. This information is used by dump for future backups. The dump command can also create incremental backups using information recorded in the /etc/dumpdates file.

In order to create an incremental backup, you should specify a higher backup-level from -1 to -9 in the command line. If backup-level is not specified, dump will assume a full backup (that is -0) should be taken..

# dump -1au none for none L -f /usr/dump2 /dev/ad0s1a DUMP: DUMP: DUMP: DUMP: DUMP: DUMP: DUMP: Date of this level 1 dump: Sat Apr 14 15:00:36 2007 Date of last level 0 dump: Sat Apr 14 14:35:34 2007 Dumping snapshot of /dev/ad0s1a (/) to /usr/dump2 mapping (Pass I) [regular files] mapping (Pass II) [directories] estimated 53 tape blocks on 0.00 tape(s). dumping (Pass III) [directories] [ 19 ].

System Conf iguration Disks DUMP: DUMP: DUMP: DUMP: DUMP: DUMP: dumping (Pass IV) [regular files] DUMP: 50 tape blocks on 1 volume finished in less than a second level 1 dump on Sat Apr 14 15:00:36 2007 Closing /usr/dump2 DUMP IS DONE. It also upd none none ates /etc/dumpdates with new backup dates:. # cat /etc/ dumpdates /dev/ad0s1a /dev/ad0s1a 0 Sat Apr 14 14:35:34 2007 1 Sat Apr 14 15:00:36 2007. Once you ha none none ve created dumps from your file system as regular files, you may want to move the dump file to another safe location (like a backup server), to protect your backups in case of a hardware failure. You can also create dumps directly on a remote server over SSH. This can be done by giving the following command:.

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