The contrastive tones of Mandarin Chinese. in Microsoft Office Build Data Matrix barcode in Microsoft Office The contrastive tones of Mandarin Chinese.

Table 2.11 The contrastive tones of Mandarin Chinese. generate, create data matrix ecc200 none on microsoft projects Use Mobile Phone to Scan 1D and 2D Barcodes Tone 1 2 3 4 Shape High level High rising Low rising High falling Example ma ma ma ma Chinese Meaning mother numb horse to scold Though English does not make systematic use of pitch in its inventory of word contrasts, nevertheless, as we always see with any possible phonetic effect, pitch is systematically varied in English to signal a speaker s emotions, intentions, and attitudes, and it has some linguistic function in signaling grammatical structure as well. Pitch variation in English will be considered in more detail in 15..

The Allophone: Sound and Context The vowel and consonant charts provide abstract symbols for the phonemes - major sound distinctions. Phonemic units should be correlated with potential meaning distinctions. For example, the change created by holding the tongue high and front (/iy/) vs.

directly down from the (frontal) position for /eh/, in the consonant context /m _ n/, corresponds to an important meaning distinction in the lexicon of English: mean /m iy n/ vs. men /m eh n/. This meaning contrast, conditioned by a pair of rather similar sounds, in an identical context, justifies the inclusion of /iy/ and /eh/ as logically separate distinctions.

However, one of the fundamental, meaning-distinguishing sounds is often modified in some systematic way by its phonetic neighbors. The process by which neighboring sounds influence one another is called coarticulation. Sometimes, when the variations resulting from coarticulatory processes can be consciously perceived, the modified phonemes are called allophones.

Allophonic differences are always categorical, that is, they can be understood and denoted by means of a small, bounded number of symbols or diacritics on the basic phoneme symbols.. Spoken Language Structure As an experiment, say th e word like to yourself. Feel the front of the tongue touching the alveolar ridge (cf. Figure 2.

21) when realizing the initial phoneme /l/. This is one allophone of /l/, the so-called light or clear /l/. Now say kill.

In this word, most English speakers will no longer feel the front part of the tongue touch the alveolar ridge. Rather, the /l/ is realized by stiffening the broad mid section of the tongue in the rear part of the mouth while the continuant airstream escapes laterally. This is another allophone of /l/, conditioned by its syllable-final position, called the dark /l/.

Predictable contextual effects on the realization of phones can be viewed as a nuisance for speech recognition, as will be discussed in 9. On the other hand, such variation, because it is systematic, could also serve as a cue to the syllable, word, and prosodic structure of speech. Now experiment with the sound /p/ by holding a piece of tissue in front of your mouth while saying the word pin in a normal voice.

Now repeat this experiment with spin. For most English speakers, the word pin produces a noticeable puff of air, called aspiration. But the same phoneme, /p/, embedded in the consonant cluster /sp/ loses its aspiration (burst, see the lines bracketing the /p/ release in pin and spin in Figure 2.

22), and because these two types of /p/ are in complementary distribution (completely determined by phonetic and syllabic context), the difference is considered allophonic.. 0.5 0 -0.5 Microsoft Office Data Matrix 0 4000 Frequency (Hz) 3000 2000 1000 0 0 0.

5 1 Time (seconds) 1.5 0.5 1 1.

5. pin (/p ih n/). spin (/s p ih n/). Figure 2.22 Spectrogram: bursts of pin and spin. The relative duration of a p-burst in different phonetic contexts is shown by the differing width of the area between the vertical lines.

. Try to spea Microsoft Office 2d Data Matrix barcode k the word bat in a framing phrase say bat again. Now speak say bad again. Can you feel the length difference in the vowel /ae/ A vowel before a voiced consonant e.

g., /d/, seems typically longer than the same vowel before the unvoiced counterpart, in this case /t/..

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